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Steve Pennings, Field Director / Associate Professor

Steve Pennings

Research Emphasis:

Plant-herbivore interactions and plant community ecology. My students and I study how and why interactions between salt marsh plants and their herbivores vary on multiple spatial scales, and how these affect the marsh plant community. We are also interested in the broader web of processes (including top-down and bottom-up forces) that affect plant-herbivore interactions. We also study how competition between plant species is affected by multiple physical stressors in estuarine habitats, and how these interactions create spatial pattern in the plant community and spatial and temporal variation in primary productivity.

GCE Committees:

GCE Predator Exclusion Experiment Committee, GCE Flux Tower Committee, GCE Executive Committee, High Marsh Experiment Committee, SALTEx Experiment Committee, Salinity Monitoring Committee, Taxonomic Database Committee

Contact Information:

Primary Organization:  University of Houston

Mailing Address:

Dr. Steven C. Pennings
Department of Biology and Biochemistry
University of Houston
Houston, Texas 77204-5513

Office Phone:  (713) 743-2989

FAX Number:  (713) 743-2622

E-Mail:  scpennin@central.uh.edu

Web Page:  http://www.bchs.uh.edu/~steve/

Other Identity Systems:

ORCID:  orcid.org/0000-0003-4757-7125

LTER:  12445


GCE Data Sets:

POR-GCED-1703 (Daily porewater salinity, conductivity, and temperature measurements from the GCE-LTER Seawater Addition Long-Term Experiment (SALTEx) Project)

PLT-GCET-1703 (Mesocosm experiment on fresh marsh plant community responses to salinity pulses in 2014 and 2015)

PLT-GCET-1703a (Plant Responses to the GCE-LTER Seawater Addition Long Term Experiment (SALTEx) from 2013 to 2016)

GEL-GCET-1216 (Effects of Small-scale Armoring and Residential Development on the Salt Marsh/Upland Ecotone in Coastal Georgia, USA)

INV-GCES-1609 (Long-term Burrowing Crab Population Abundance Data from the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems LTER Fall Marsh Monitoring Program)

(most recent displayed - view all)

GCE Publications and Presentations: (custom bibliography)

Journal Articles

Gehman, A., McLenaghan, N.A., Byers, J., Alexander, C.R. Jr., Pennings, S.C. and Alber, M. 2017. Effects of small-scale armoring and residential development on the salt marsh-upland ecotone. Estuaries and Coasts. (accepted)

Liu, W., Strong, D.R., Pennings, S.C. and Zhang, Y. 2017. Provenance-by-environment interaction of reproductive traits in the invasion of Spartina alterniflora in China. Ecology. 98(6):1591-1599.

Vu, H., Wieski, K. and Pennings, S.C. (in press). Interactions between ecosystem engineers drive creek formation in sinking salt marshes. Ecology.

Craft, C.B., Herbert, E., Li, F., Smith, D., Schubauer-Berigan, J.P., Widney, S., Angelini, C., Pennings, S.C., Medeiros, P.M., Byers, J. and Alber, M. 2016. Climate change and the fate of coastal wetlands. Wetland Science and Practice. 33(3):70-73.

Li, S. and Pennings, S.C. 2016. Disturbance in Georgia salt marshes: variation across space and time. Ecosphere. 7(10):e01487. (DOI: 10.1002/ecs2.1487)

Liu, W., Maung-Douglass, K., Strong, D.R., Pennings, S.C. and Zhang, Y. 2016. Geographical variation in vegetative growth and sexual reproduction of the invasive Spartina alterniflora in China. Journal of Ecology. 104:173-181. (DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12487)

Guo, H., Chamberlain, S.A., Elhaik, E., Jalli, I., Lynes, A.R., Marczak, L., Sabath, N., Vargas, A., Wieski, K., Zelig, E. and Pennings, S.C. 2015. Geographic Variation in Plant Community Structure of Salt Marshes: Species, Functional and Phylogenetic Perspectives. PLOS ONE. 10(5). (DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0127781)

Hübner, L., Pennings, S.C. and Zimmer, M. 2015. Sex- and habitat-specific movement of an omnivorous semi-terrestrial crab controls habitat connectivity and subsidies: a multi-parameter approach. Oecologia. 178:999-1015. (DOI: 10.1007/s00442-015-3271-0)

Hübner, L., Pennings, S.C. and Zimmer, M. 2015. Sex- and habitat-specific movement of an omnivorous semi-terrestrial crab controls habitat connectivity and subsidies: A multi-parameter approach. Oecologia. 3/2015. (DOI: 10.1007/s00442-015-3271-0)

Guo, H., Wieski, K., Lan, Z. and Pennings, S.C. 2014. Relative influence of deterministic processes on structuring marsh plant communities varies across an abiotic gradient. Oikos. 123(2):173-178. (DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0706.2013.00425.x)

He, Q., Bertness, M.D., Bruno, J.F., Li, B., Chen, G., Coverdale, T.C., Alteiri, A., Bai, J., Sun, T., Pennings, S.C., Liu, J., Ehrlich, P.R. and Cui, B. 2014. Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China. Scientific Reports. 4(5995):9. (DOI: 10.1038/srep05995)

Pennings, S.C., McCall, B.D. and Hooper-Bui, L. 2014. Effects of oil spills on terrestrial arthropods in coastal wetlands. Bioscience. 64:789-795. (DOI: 10.1093/biosci/biu118)

Wieski, K. and Pennings, S.C. 2014. Climate Drivers of Spartina alterniflora Saltmarsh Production in Georgia, USA. Ecosystems. 17(3):473-484. (DOI: 10.1007/s10021-013-9732-6)

Wieski, K. and Pennings, S.C. 2014. Latitudinal variation in resistance and tolerance to herbivory of a salt marsh shrub. Ecography. 37:763-769. (DOI: 10.1111/ecog.00498)

Ho, C.-K. and Pennings, S.C. 2013. Preference and performance in plant-herbivore interactions across latitude – a study in U.S. Atlantic salt marshes. PLoS One. 8(3). (DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059829)

Marczak, L., Wieski, K., Denno, R. and Pennings, S.C. 2013. Importance of local vs. geographic variation in salt marsh plant quality for arthropod herbivore communities. Journal of Ecology. 101:1169-1182. (DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12137)

Schalles, J.F., Hladik, C.M., Lynes, A.R. and Pennings, S.C. 2013. Landscape estimates of habitat types, plant biomass, and invertebrate densities in a Georgia salt marsh. Special Issue: Coastal Long Term Ecological Research. Oceanography. 26:88-97. (DOI: 10.5670/oceanog.2013.50)

Treplin, M., Pennings, S.C. and Zimmer, M. 2013. Decomposition of leaf litter in a U.S. saltmarsh is driven by dominant species, not species complementarity. Wetlands. 33:83-89. (DOI: 10.1007/s13157-012-0353-1)

Ewers, C., Beiersdorf, A., Wieski, K., Pennings, S.C. and Zimmer, M. 2012. Predator/prey-interactions promote decomposition of low-quality detritus. Wetlands. 32:931-938. (DOI: 10.1007/s13157-012-0326-4)

Gough, L., Gross, K.L., Cleland, E.E., Clark, C.M., Collins, S.L., Fargione, J.E., Pennings, S.C. and Suding, K.N. 2012. Incorporating clonal growth form clarifies the role of plant height in response to nitrogen addition. Oecologia. 169:1053-1062. (DOI: 10.1007/s00442-012-2264-5)

Guo, H. and Pennings, S.C. 2012. Mechanisms mediating plant distributions across estuarine landscapes in a low-latitude tidal estuary. Ecology. 93(1):90-100. (DOI: 10.1890/11-0487.1)

Guo, H. and Pennings, S.C. 2012. Post-mortem ecosystem engineering by oysters creates habitat for a rare marsh plant. Oecologia. 170:789-798. (DOI: 10.1007/s00442-012-2356-2)

Jimenez, J.M., Wieski, K., Marczak, L., Ho, C.-K. and Pennings, S.C. 2012. Effects of an omnivorous katydid, salinity, and nutrients on a planthopper-Spartina food web. Estuaries and Coasts. 35:475-485. (DOI: 10.1007/s12237-011-9458-7)

McCall, B.D. and Pennings, S.C. 2012. Disturbance and recovery of salt marsh arthropod communities following BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill. PLoS ONE. (DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032735)

McCall, B.D. and Pennings, S.C. 2012. Geographic variation in salt marsh structure and function. Oecologia. 170:777-787. (DOI: 10.1007/s00442-012-2352-6)

Cleland, E.E., Clark, C.M., Collins, S.L., Fargione, J.E., Gough, L., Gross, K.L., Pennings, S.C. and Suding, K.N. 2011. Patterns of trait convergence and divergence among native and exotic species in herbaceous plant communities are not modified by nitrogen enrichment. Journal of Ecology. 99:1327-1338. (DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2011.01860.x)

Marczak, L., Ho, C.-K., Vu, H., Denno, R. and Pennings, S.C. 2011. Latitudinal variation in top-down and bottom-up control of a salt marsh food web. Ecology. 92:276-281. (DOI: 10.1890/10-0760.1)

Ho, C.-K., Pennings, S.C. and Carefoot, T.H. 2010. Is Diet Quality an Overlooked Mechanism for Bergmann's Rule? The American Naturalist. 175(2):269-276. (DOI: 10.1086/649583)

Robinson, J.D., Diaz-Ferguson, E., Poelchau, M., Pennings, S.C., Bishop, T.D. and Wares, J.P. 2010. Multiscale Diversity in the Marshes of the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems LTER. Estuaries and Coasts. 33(4):865-877. (DOI: 10.1007/s12237-009-9188-2)

Wieski, K., Guo, H., Craft, C.B. and Pennings, S.C. 2010. Ecosystem functions of tidal fresh, brackish and salt marshes on the Georgia coast. Estuaries and Coasts. 33:161-169. (DOI: 10.1007/s12237-009-9230-4)

Craft, C.B., Clough, J., Ehman, J., Joye, S.B., Park, R., Pennings, S.C., Guo, H. and Machmuller, M. 2009. Forecasting the effects of accelerated sea level rise on tidal marsh ecosystem services. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 7(2):73-78. (DOI: 10.1890/070219)

Craft, C.B., Clough, J., Ehman, J., Joye, S.B., Park, R., Pennings, S.C., Guo, H. and Machmuller, M. 2009. SLR and ecosystem services: a response to Kirwan and Guntenspergen. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 7:127-128.

Pennings, S.C., Ho, C.-K., Salgado, C.S., Wieski, K., Davé, N.B., Kunza, A.E. and Wason, E.L. 2009. Latitudinal variation in herbivore pressure in Atlantic Coast salt marshes. Ecology. 90(1):183-195. (DOI: 10.1890/08-0222.1)

Cleland, E.E., Clark, C.M., Collins, S.L., Fargione, J.E., Gough, L., Gross, K.L., Milchunas, D.G., Pennings, S.C., Bowman, W.D., Burke, I.C., Lauenroth, G.P., Robertson, J.C., Simpson, J.C., Tilman, D. and Suding, K.N. 2008. Species responses to nitrogen fertilization in herbaceous plant communities, and associated species traits. Ecology. 89:1175.

Collins, S.L., Suding, K.N., Cleland, E.E., Batty, M., Pennings, S.C., Gross, K.L., Grace, J.B., Gough, L., Fargione, J.E. and Clark, C.M. 2008. Rank clocks and plant community dynamics. Ecology. 89(12):3534-3541. (DOI: 10.1890/07-1646.1)

Ho, C.-K. and Pennings, S.C. 2008. Consequences of omnivory for trophic interactions on a salt-marsh shrub. Ecology. 89(6):1714-1722. (DOI: 10.1890/07-1069.1)

Kunza, A.E. and Pennings, S.C. 2008. Patterns of plant diversity in Georgia and Texas salt marshes. Estuaries and Coasts. 31:673-681.

McFarlin, C.R., Brewer, J.S., Buck, T.L. and Pennings, S.C. 2008. Impact of fertilization on a salt marsh food web in Georgia. Estuaries and Coasts. 31:313-325.

Pennings, S.C. and Simpson, J.C. 2008. Like herbivores, parasitic plants are limited by host nitrogen content. Plant Ecology. 196:245-250. (DOI: 10.1007/s11258-007-9348-z)

Wason, E.L. and Pennings, S.C. 2008. Grasshopper (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) species composition and size across latitude in Atlantic Coast salt marshes. Estuaries and Coasts. 31:335-343.

Clark, C.M., Cleland, E.E., Collins, S.L., Fargione, J.E., Gough L., Gross, K.L., Pennings, S.C., Suding, K.N., Grace, J.B. 2007. Environmental and plant community determinants of species loss following nitrogen enrichment. Ecology Letters, 10:596-607

Pennings, S.C., Zimmer, M., Dias, N., Sprung, M., Davé, N., Ho, C.-K., Kunza, A., McFarlin, C., Mews, M., Pfauder, A. and Salgado, C. 2007. Latitudinal variation in plant-herbivore interactions in European salt marshes. Oikos. 116:543-549.

Pennings, S.C. and Silliman, B.R. 2005. Linking biogeography and community ecology: latitudinal variation in plant-herbivore interaction strength. Ecology. 86:2310-2319.

Pennings, S.C., Clark, C.M., Cleland, E.E., Collins, S.L., Gough, L., Gross, K.L., Milchunas, D.G. and Suding, K.N. 2005. Do individual plant species show predictable responses to nitrogen addition across multiple experiments? OIKOS. 110:547-555.

Pennings, S.C., Grant, M.-B. and Bertness, M.D. 2005. Plant zonation in low-latitude salt marshes: disentangling the roles of flooding, salinity and competition. Journal of Ecology. 93:159-167.

Richards, C.L., Pennings, S.C. and Donovan, L.A. 2005. Habitat range and phenotypic variation in salt marsh plants. Plant Ecology. 176:263-273.

Salgado, C.S. and Pennings, S.C. 2005. Latitudinal variation in palatability of salt-marsh plants: are differences constitutive? Ecology. 86(6):1571-1579.

Suding, K.N., Collins, S.L., Gough, L., Clark, C., Cleland, E.E., Gross, K.L., Milchunas, D.G. and Pennings, S.C. 2005. Functional- and abundance-based mechanisms explain diversity loss due to N fertilization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 102:4387-4392.

Goranson, C.E., Ho, C.-K. and Pennings, S.C. 2004. Environmental gradients and herbivore feeding preferences in coastal salt marshes. Oecologia. 140:591-600.

Zimmer, M., Pennings, S.C., Buck, T.L. and Carefoot, T.H. 2004. Salt Marsh Litter and Detritivores: A Closer Look at Redundancy. Estuaries. 27(5):753–769.

Buck, T.L., Breed, G.A., Pennings, S.C., Chase, M.E., Zimmer, M. and Carefoot, T.H. 2003. Diet choice in an omnivorous salt marsh crab: different food types, claw allometry, and habitat complexity. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 292:103-116.

Callaway, R.M., Pennings, S.C. and Richards, C.L. 2003. Phenotypic plasticity and interactions among plants. Ecology. 84(5):1115-1128.

Pennings, S.C., Selig, E.R., Houser, L.T. and Bertness, M.D. 2003. Geographic variation in positive and negative interactions among salt marsh plants. Ecology. 84:1527-1538.

Pennings, S.C. and Callaway, R.M. 2002. Parasitic plants: parallels and contrasts with herbivores. Oecologia. 131:479-489.

Pennings, S.C., Stanton, L.E. and Brewer, J.S. 2002. Nutrient effects on the composition of salt marsh plant communities along the southern Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States. Estuaries. 25:1164-1173.

Zimmer, M., Pennings, S.C., Buck, T.L. and Carefoot, T.H. 2002. Species-specific patterns of litter processing by terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea) in high intertidal salt marshes and coastal forests. Functional Ecology. 16:596-607.

Books and Book Sections

Sharitz, R.R. and Pennings, S.C. 2014. Development of wetland plant communities. Pages 133-150 in: Ecology of Freshwater and Estuarine Wetlands. University of California Press.

Sharitz, R.R., Batzer, D. and Pennings, S.C. 2014. Ecology of Freshwater and Estuarine Wetlands: An Introduction. Pages 1-22 in: Ecology of Freshwater and Estuarine Wetlands. University of California Press.

Pennings, S.C. 2013. Forging collaborations between ecology and historical ecology. Pages 167-175 in: Thompson, V.D. and Waggoner, J. (editors). The archaeology and historical ecology of small scale economies. The University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

Pennings, S.C., Alber, M., Alexander, C.R. Jr., Booth, M.G., Burd, A.B., Cai, W.-J., Craft, C.B., DePratter, C., Di Iorio, D., Hollibaugh, J.T., Hopkinson, C.S., Joye, S.B., Meile, C., Moore, W.S., Silliman, B.R., Thompson, V.D. and Wares, J.P. 2012. South Atlantic Tidal Wetlands. Pages 45-61 in: Batzer, D.P. and Baldwin, A. (editors). Wetland Habitats of North America: Ecology and Conservation Concerns. University of California Press, Berkeley, California.

Sharitz, R.R. and Pennings, S.C. 2006. Development of wetland plant communities. Pages 177-241 in: Batzer, D.P. and Sharitz, R.R. (editors). Ecology of freshwater and estuarine wetlands. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Conference Papers (Peer Reviewed)

Pennings, S.C. 2010. Local and geographic variation in Spartina-herbivore interactions. Pages 9-14 in: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Invasive Spartina. San Francisco Estuary Invasive Spartina Project of the California State Coastal Conservancy, Oakland, CA.

Conference Posters and Presentations

Smith, D., Herbert, E., Li, F., Widney, S., Desha, J., Schubauer-Berigan, J.P., Pennings, S.C., Angelini, C., Medeiros, P.M., Byers, J., Alber, M. and Craft, C.B. 2016. Poster: Seawater Addition Long Term Experiment (SALTEx). SEERS 2016 Spring Meeting, March 10-12, 2016, Bluffton, South Carolina.

Gehman, A., McLenaghan, N.A., Byers, J., Alexander, C.R. Jr., Pennings, S.C. and Alber, M. 2015. Poster: Effects of development and shoreline armoring on the high marsh ecosystem. Benthic Society Ecology Meeting 2015, March 4-7, 2015, Quebec City, CN.

Mony, C., Pennings, S.C., Bittebiere, A.-K. and Garbey, M. 2014. Poster: Attack of the clones: multiscale modeling of clonal plant dynamic. 2014 Multi-Scale Modeling Consortium, September 3-4, 2014, NIH campus, Bethesda Maryland.

Pennings, S.C. 2013. Presentation: Computer science meets biology: using volunteer scientists to map salt marsh plant communities. Workshop on complex adaptive systems, 21 October, 2013, La Rochelle, France.

Vu, H. and Pennings, S.C. 2013. Presentation: Biophysical feedbacks in tidal creek formation. Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation 2013, 3-7 November 2013, San Diego, CA.

Garbey, M., Bittebiere, A.-K., Smaoui, M., Rinsurongkawong, W., Clement, B., Pennings, S.C. and Mony, C. 2012. Presentation: Large scale simulations of virtual prairies with volunteer computing. Modeling wetland processes. 2012 LTER All Scientist Meeting, September 10-13, 2012, Estes Park, CO.

Pennings, S.C. 2012. Presentation: Distributed graduate courses in the LTER network. LTER graduate student training: Innovations and cross-site opportunities. 2012 LTER All Scientist Meeting, September 10-13, Estes Park, CO.

Pennings, S.C. 2012. Presentation: Stability of salt marsh plant communities. PDTNet. 2012 LTER All Scientist Meeting, September 10-13, Estes Park, CO.

Wieski, K. and Pennings, S.C. 2012. Poster: Climate drivers of Spartina marsh production on the Georgia coast. LTER All Scientists Meeting, September 10-13, 2012, Estes Park.

Pennings, S.C., Ho, C.-K., Marczak, L., McCall, B.D., Wieski, K. and Vu, H. 2011. Presentation: Geographic variation in salt marsh food webs. Comparative studies of estuarine and coastal system properties. Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation, November 6-11, Daytona Beach, FL.

Vu, H., Wieski, K. and Pennings, S.C. 2011. Presentation: Crab mediated tidal creek formation in salt marshes. Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation, November 6-11, Daytona Beach, FL.

Alexander, C.R. Jr., Alber, M., Hladik, C.M. and Pennings, S.C. 2010. Presentation: Physical-Biological Interactions in Coastal Settings: The Georgia Coastal Ecosystem LTER Example. American Geophysical Union - Meeting of the Americas, 9-13 August 2010, Foz do Iguacu, Brazil.

Guo, H., Pennings, S.C. and Wieski, K. 2010. Presentation: Mechanisms mediating plant distributions in Georgia tidal marshes. 2010 annual meeting of the Ecological Society of America, August 1-6, 2010, Pittsburgh, PA.

Hladik, C.M., Alber, M., Schalles, J.F. and Pennings, S.C. 2010. Poster: Salt marsh habitat mapping on Sapelo Island, GA using LIDAR and hyperspectralimagery. National Estuarine Research Reserve Annual Meeting, October 11-15, 2010, National Conservation Training Center, Shepherdstown, WV.

Ho, C.-K. and Pennings, S.C. 2010. Presentation: Preference and performance in plant-herbivore interactions across latitude. Organized Oral Session, “Latitudinal gradients in consumer-resource interactions: bridging the gap between pattern and process“. 2010 annual meeting of the Ecological Society of America, August 1-6, 2010, Pittsburgh, PA.

Pennings, S.C. 2010. Presentation: Latitudinal variation in plant-herbivore interactions in salt marshes. Organized Oral Session, “Latitudinal gradients in consumer-resource interactions: bridging the gap between pattern and process“. 2010 annual meeting of the Ecological Society of America, August 1-6, 2010, Pittsburgh, PA.

Alber, M., Alexander, C.R. Jr., Hladik, C.M., Jackson, C. and Pennings, S.C. 2009. Presentation: Marsh hammocks: isolated uplands in the marsh environment. Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation meeting, November 2009, Portland, Oregon.

Guo, H., Ewers, C. and Pennings, S.C. 2009. Presentation: Factors mediating the distribution of Suaeda linearis in Georgia coastal marshes. Ecological Society of America 2009 annual meeting, August 2-7, 2009, Albuquerque, NM.

Hladik, C.M., Alber, M., Schalles, J.F., Lynes, A.R. and Pennings, S.C. 2009. Poster: Salt marsh habitat mapping on Sapelo Island, GA using LIDAR and hyperspectral imagery. Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation meeting, November 2009, Portland, Oregon.

Pennings, S.C., Buck, T.L., Lynes, A.R. and Grace, J.B. 2009. Poster: Centrifugal organization of vegetation in salt marsh plant communities. 2009 LTER All Scientists Meeting, September 14-16, 2009, Estes Park, Colorado.

Schalles, J.F., Hladik, C.M., Pennings, S.C., Steele, M.M. and Lynes, A.R. 2009. Presentation: Extracting habitat features from hyperspectral wetland imagery at NOAA’s Sapelo Island and Mission-Aransas National Estuarine Research Reserves. NOAA – Educational Partnership Program Fifth Education and Science Forum, November 13, 2009, Howard University, Washington, D.C.

Guo, H., Pennings, S.C. and Wieski, K. 2008. Poster: Physical stress, plant productivity, competition, and diversity in Georgia tidal marshes. Coastal Habitats. 93rd Annual Meeting of the Ecological Society of America, August 3-8, 2008, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Wieski, K., Guo, H. and Pennings, S.C. 2008. Poster: Ecosystem functions of tidal fresh, brackish, and salt marshes. Estuarine, Coastal and Intertidal Systems. 93rd Annual Meeting of the Ecological Society of America, August 3-8, 2008, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Collins, S.L., Suding, K.N., Cleland, E.E., Batty, M., Pennings, S.C., Gross, K.L., Grace, J.S., Gough, L., Fargione, J.E., Clark, C.M. Presentation: Rank clocks and plant community dynamics. Joint Ecological Society of America / Society for Ecological Restoration 2007 Meeting, August 5-10, 2007, San Jose, CA.

Ho, C.-K. and Pennings, S.C. 2007. Presentation: Bergmann¡'s Rule and latitudinal variation in herbivore body size. Joint Ecological Society of America / Society for Ecological Restoration 2007 Meeting, August 5-10, 2007, San Jose, California, USA.

Pennings, S.C., Ho, C.-K., Salgado, C., Wieski, K., Dave, N., Kunza, A.E., Wason, E.L. 2007. Presentation: Latitudinal variation in herbivore pressure in Atlantic Coast salt marshes. Joint Ecological Society of America / Society for Ecological Restoration 2007 Meeting, August 5-10, 2007, San Jose, CA.

Volkmer, M., Schalles, J.F., Hladik, C.M. and Pennings, S.C. 2007. Presentation: Coastal wetland and surface water classifications using hyperspectral aerial imagery. CS23 Remote Sensing and Emerging Technologies. American Society of Limnology and Oceanography 2007 Aquatic Science Meetings, February 5, 2007, Sante Fe, N.M.

Wason, E.L. and Pennings, S.C. 2007. Poster: Gradients of grasshopper species composition and size in Atlantic Coast salt marshes. Joint Ecological Society of America / Society for Ecological Restoration 2007 Meeting, August 5-10, 2007, San Jose, CA.

Ho, C.-K. and Pennings, S. C. Presentation: Preference and performance in plant-herbivore interactions across latitude. 91st Annual Meeting of the Ecological Society of America. August 6-11, 2006, Memphis, Tennessee, USA.

Kunza, A.E. and Pennings, S.C. 2006. Poster: Patterns of plant diversity in two salt marsh regions. Long Term Ecological Research Network All-Scientists Meeting, September 20-24, 2006, Estes Park, Colorado.

Pennings, S.C. 2006. Presentation: Plant community response to nitrogen enrichment: results from a cross-site synthesis. Long Term Ecological Research Network All-Scientists Meeting, September 20-24, 2006, Estes Park, Colorado.

Pennings, S.C. 2006. Presentation: Sea-level rise and ecosystem services of tidal marshes. Sea-level rise, hurricanes, and the future of our coasts. Sigma Xi Meeting,Texas A&M University, March 30, 2006.

Clark, C., Cleland, E., Collins, S., Gough, L., Pennings, S. and Suding, K. 2005. Presentation: Predicting the loss of biodiversity with nitrogen addition across North American herbaceous communities: abiotic vs. biotic drivers. Ecological Society of America 2005 Meeting - Ecology at multiple scales, August 7-12, 2005, Montreal, Canada.

Fargione, J., Pennings, S., Clark, C., Suding, K., Gough, L., Grace, J., Cleland, E., Collins, S. and Gross, K. 2005. Presentation: A negative relationship between species richness and productivity response to N addition in a synthesis of N fertilization studies. Ecological Society of America 2005 Meeting - Ecology at multiple scales, August 7-12, 2005, Montreal, Canada.

Ho, C.-K. and Pennings, S.C. 2005. Poster: Consequences of Omnivory for Trophic Interactions: A Case from Salt Marshes. Ecological Society of America 2005 Meeting - Ecology at multiple scales, August 7-12, 2005, Montreal, Canada.

Ho, C.-K. and Pennings, S.C. 2005. Presentation: Consequences of ominivory. The 18th Biennial Conference of the Estuarine Research Federation. Oct. 16-20, 2005, Norfolk, Virginia.

Kunza, A.E. and Pennings, S.C. 2005. Poster: Plant diversity of Texas and Georgia salt marshes. Ecological Society of America 2005 Meeting - Ecology at multiple scales, August 7-12, 2005, Montreal, Canada.

Pennings, S.C. 2005. Presentation: Physical forcing and variation in salt marsh plant productivity at multiple time scales. Ecological Society of America 2005 Meeting - Ecology at multiple scales, August 7-12, 2005, Montreal, Canada.

Pennings, S.C. 2004. Presentation: Local and geographic variation in Spartina-herbivore interactions. Third International Conference on Invasive Spartina, November 8-10, 2004, San Francisco, CA.

Ewanchuk, P., Pennings, S.C., Bertness, M.D., Selig, E.R. and Houser, L.T. 2003. Presentation: Temporal and spatial variation in interactions among salt marsh plants. Estuaries on the Edge. Estuarine Research Federation and LTER Joint Symposium, Setember 18, 2003, Seattle, WA.

Ho, C.-K., Salgado, C.S., Dave, N.B. and Pennings, S.C. 2003. Poster: Latitudinal variation in herbivore densities and damage to plants in coastal salt marshes. Ecological Society of America, August 3-8, 2003, Savannah, GA.

McFarlin, C.R., Buck, T.L., Newell, S.Y. and Pennings, S.C. 2003. Poster: Impact of fertilization on the abundance of two detritivorous snails. Embarking on a Decade of Synthesis. 2003 LTER All Scientists Meeting, September 18-21, 2003, Seattle, WA.

McFarlin, C.R., Buck, T.L., Newell, S.Y. and Pennings, S.C. 2003. Poster: Impact of fertilization on the abundance of two detritivorous snails. Uplands to Lowlands: Coastal Processes in a Time of Global Change. Aquatic Systems. Ecological Society of America, August 3-8, 2003, Savannah, GA.

Pennings, S.C. 2003. Presentation: Latitudinal variation in plant-herbivore interactions in Atlantic Coast salt marshes. Estuaries on the Edge. Estuarine Research Federation and LTER Joint Symposium, September 18, 2003, Seattle, WA.

Pennings, S.C., Bertness, M.D., Ewanchuk, P.J., Selig, E.R. and Houser, L.T. 2003. Presentation: Temporal and spatial variation in positive and negative interactions among salt marsh plants: the role of climate and community. Expanding scales, expanding perspectives: new insights into marine ecosystem dynamics. Ecological Society of America, August 2003, Savannah, GA.

Salgado, C., Ho, C.-K., Davé, N. and Pennings, S.C. 2003. Poster: Strength of plant-herbivore interactions varies across latitude in Atlantic coast salt marshes. 2003 Meeting of the International Biogeographic Society. International Biogeographic Society, January 4-8, 2003, Mesquite, NV.

Buck, T.L. and Pennings, S.C. 2002. Poster: Variation in zonation patterns of salt marsh plants among sites. 87th Annual Meeting of the Ecological Society of America and the 14th Annual International Conference of the Society for Ecological Restoration. Ecological Society of America, August, 2002, Tucson, Arizona.

Richards, C.L., Pennings, S.C. and Donovan, L.A. 2002. Poster: Community-wide patterns of phenotypic variation in salt marsh plants. 2002 National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR) Annual Meeting.

Amft, J., Blanton, J.O., Di Iorio, D., Helm, K. and Pennings, S.C. 2001. Poster: Estuarine salinity regime near Sapelo Island, Georgia. ERF 2001: An Estuarine Odyssey. Estuarine Research Federation, November 4-8, 2001, St. Petersburg, Florida.

Goranson, C. and Pennings, S.C. 2001. Poster: Effects of physical gradients on palatability of salt marsh plants to herbivores. Poster presented at the ESA Annual Meeting 2001. Ecological Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin.

Pennings, S.C., Bertness, M.D., Donnelly, J.P., Ewanchuk, P.J., Silliman, B.R. and Callaway, R.M. 2001. Presentation: Impacts of global change on coastal salt marshes. Keynote address to the German Limnological Association, September 17-21, 2001, Kiel, Germany.

Pennings, S.C., Bertness, M.D., Donnelly, J.P., Ewanchuk, P.J., Silliman, B.R. and Callaway, R.M. 2001. Presentation: Impacts of human activities on coastal salt marshes. Meeting of the Western Society of Naturalists, November 10-12, 2001, Ventura, California.

Richards, C.L., Pennings, S.C. and Donovan, L.A. 2000. Presentation: Morphological variation in twelve salt marsh plant species on Sapelo Island, GA. ESA 2000. Ecological Society of America, Aug 01, 2000.

LTER
NSF

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under grants OCE-9982133, OCE-0620959 and OCE-1237140. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in the material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.